EEN STUK VAN DE VERSCHILLENDE BRONZEN KETTINGEN VAN DE NEDERLANDS-ROMEINS PERIODE MET 3 BRAKKEN 'T WERD GEBRUIKT IN DEZE NATUURLIJKE TIJD OM ER BEESTEN - MENSEN OF SPULLETJES MEE OP HOLD TE LEGGEN OF OP SLOT .
PERIODE WAARSCHIJNLIJK 1E EEUW NA CHRISTUS
DE LENGTE BEDRAAGT TOTAAL 6CM -DIKTE BRAK = 10 MM
A DIFFERENT PIECE OF THE DUTCH ROMAN PERIOD BRONZE-BRASS CHAINS IT WAS MEANT FOR SLAVE'S OR PRISONERS OR FOR A DAILY JOB TO PUT SAMPTHING ON HOLD OR LOCK .
PERIOD BRONZE CHAIN APPROX: 1th CENTURY.
SIZES TOTAL LENGTH = 6 CM - THICKNES OFF THE CHAIN: 10 MM.
I WAS TAKEN AWAY IN GOLDEN CHAINS OF 500 GRAMS PURE GOLD AND MY FEET HURT. IT WAS PAINFULL.
Zenobia was born with the name Iulia (or Julia) Aurelia Zenobia. Her name in the Arabic language is Znwbya Bat Zaddai or ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???????); in Greek ? ????ß?a and she is known as Xenobia or Septimia Zenobia (she added that name to her name when she married Septimius Odaenathus). On official documents she would put Bat-Zabbai (Daughter of the al-zabba) her mom (and Zenobia) were called Al-zabba literally meaning the one with long lovely hair.
Her father, Zabaii ben Selim or Iulius (or Julius) Aurelius Zenobius, was a chieftain of Syria in 229 and her mother may have been Egyptian. Her father’s gentilicium Aurelius shows that his paternal ancestors received Roman citizenship under either Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned 138-161), Marcus Aurelius (reigned 161-180), or Commodus (reigned 180-192). Zenobia was born and raised in Palmyra, Syria.
The theory that her mother was Egyptian is based on the fact that Zenobia knew the ancient Egyptian language very well and had a strong predisposition toward the ancient culture of Egypt.
Inscriptions found at Palmyra show that Zenobia’s father had a Greek name: Antiochus. However, according to Augustan History (Aurel. 31.2), his name was Achilleus and his usurper was named Antiochus (Zos. 1.60.2). Zenobia’s near ancestry is not known certainly, however, her father’s paternal ancestry is traceable up to six generations and includes a Sampsiceramus (a Syrian chieftain, who founded the Royal Family of Emesa modern Homs, Syria) and Gaius Julius Bassianus, a high priest from Emesa, and father of Roman Empress Julia Domna.
Zenobia claimed to be a descendant of the Queen of Carthage, Dido, the King of Emesa Sampsiceramus, and the Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. According to Augustan History, an imperial declaration in 269 of hers was sent to the citizens of Alexandria, Egypt, describing the city as “my ancestral city.” This declaration only fits Vaballathus, the son of Zenobia.
Historian Kallinikos of Petra dedicated a ten-book history on Alexandria’s history to a ’Cleopatra,’ who can only be Zenobia. During their 300 year rule of Egypt, the Ptolemaic queens were often named Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice.
Zenobia is descended from the three above named figures through Drusilla of Mauretania. Drusilla was a daughter of King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Queen Julia Urania of Mauretania. Drusilla’s mother most probably came from the Royal Family of Emesa and Drusilla married into that Royal Family. Drusilla’s paternal grandmother Queen of Mauretania Cleopatra Selene II, was a daughter of Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. Drusilla’s paternal grandfather African King Juba II of Mauretania claimed to be a descendant of the sister to the General of Carthage, Hannibal (Lucan. Pharsalia 8.287). Hannibal’s family, the Barcids, claimed to be descended from Dido’s younger brother.
Zenobia was described as beautiful and intelligent. She had a dark complexion, her teeth were pearly white, she had black bright eyes that sparkled, and had a beautiful face. Zenobia had a strong and melodic voice and many charms. Zenobia was well educated and knew Greek, Aramaic, Egyptian, and Latin. She was very interested in history and the works of Homer, Plato, and other writers from Greece. She also enjoyed hunting animals and drinking.
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Zenobia married King of Palmyra Septimius odenathus by 258 as his second wife. She had a stepson Hairan, a son from Odanathus’ first marriage. As in 258, there is an inscription ‘the illustrious consul our lord’ at Palmyra, dedicated to Odanathus who was chief of Palmyra, by Zenobia, who was a supporter of his.
Zenobia coin reporting her title, Augusta and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent with the obverse showing a standing figure of Ivno Regina, Juno, holding a patera in her right hand, a sceptre in her left, a peacock at her feet, and a brilliant star to the left Around 266, Zenobia and Odaenathus had a son, his second child, Lucius Iulius Aurelius Septimius Vaballathus Athenodorus. Her son Vaballathus (Latin from the Arabic as ??? ????? Wahballath), is the name of Odaenathus’ paternal grandfather that means, ‘gift of the Goddess’. In 267, Zenobia’s husband and stepson were assassinated. The titled heir, Vaballathus, was only a year old, so his mother succeeded her husband and ruled Palmyra. Zenobia bestowed upon herself and her son the honorific titles of Augusta and Augustus.
Zenobia conquered new territories and increased the Palmyrene Empire, in the memory of her husband and as a legacy to her son. Her stated goal was to protect the Eastern Roman Empire from the Sassanid Empire, for the peace of Rome, however, her efforts significantly increased the power of her throne.
In 269, Zenobia, her army, and the Palmyrene General Zabdas violently conquered Egypt with help from their Egyptian ally, Timagenes, and his army. The Roman prefect of Egypt, Tenagino Probus and his forces, tried to expel them from Egypt, but Zenobia's forces captured and beheaded Probus. She then proclaimed herself Queen of Egypt.
After these initial forays, Zenobia became known as a "Warrior Queen". In leading her army, she displayed significant prowess: she was an able horse rider and would walk three or four miles with her foot soldiers.
Zenobia with her large army made expeditions and conquered Asia Minor as far as Ancyra or Ankara and Chalcedon, then to Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon. In her short lived empire, Zenobia took the vital trade routes in these areas from the Romans. Roman Emperor Aurelian, who was at that time campaigning with his forces in the Gallie Empire, probably did recognise the authority of Zenobia and Vaballathus. However this relationship began to degenerate when Aurelian began a military campaign to reunite the Roman Empire in 272-273. Aurelian and his forces left the Gallic Empire and arrived in Syria. The forces of Aurelian and Zenobia met and fought near Antioch. After a crushing defeat, the remaining Palmyrenes briefly fled into Antioch and into Emesa.
Zenobia was unable to remove her treasury at Emesa before Aurelian successfully entered and besieged Emesa. Zenobia and her son escaped from Emesa on camel back with help from the Sassanids, but they were captured on the Euphrates River by Aurelian’s horsemen. Zenobia’s short lived Egyptian kingdom and the Palmyrene Empire had ended. The remaining Palmyrenes who refused to surrender were captured by Aurelian and were executed on Aurelian’s orders. Among those who were executed was Zenobia's chief counselor and Greek sophist, Cassius Dionysius Longinus.
Zenobia and Vaballathus were taken as hostages to Rome by Aurelian. Vaballathus died on his way to Rome. In 274, Zenobia appeared in golden chains in Aurelian’s military triumph parade in Rome. Aurelian, out of clemency, impressed by her beauty and dignity, freed Zenobia. Aurelian granted her an elegant villa in Tibur (modern Tivoli, Italy).
She lived in luxury and she became a prominent philosopher, socialite, and Roman matron. Zenobia married a Roman governor and senator whose name is unknown. They had several daughters, whose names are also unknown, but who are known to have married into Roman noble families. There is a claim, after Aurelian’s defeat Zenobia committed suicide, however, this is not likely. She would have further descendants surviving in the fourth and fifth century.
The evidence of a descendant of Zenobia can be confirmed by an inscription found in Rome. The inscription Lucius Septimia Patavinia Balbilla Tyria Nepotilla Odaenathiania contains the names of her first husband Septimius Odaenathus. He probably was named in the honor of Zenobia's first husband. (After the deaths of Odaenathus and his sons, Odaenathus had no descendants). Another possible descendant of Zenobia is Saint Zenobius of Florence a Christian bishop who lived in the fifth century A.D.